When almost a quarter of all deaths is accounted for by cancer in the majority of the developed countries, oncology becomes one of the most important areas of medicine. Improved life expectancy and therefore, more aging-associated complications, high obesity levels, tobacco and alcohol abuse – all these factors contribute to a rising number of oncological problems. Increase in urban population and exposure to intensive air pollution and processed food which is filled with carcinogenic chemicals also influence the number of cancer cases. In order to combat cancer, oncology approaches the disease from different angles. It studies hematological and metabolic issues of cancer as well as inspects it while coming from pediatric and geriatric standpoints. Treatment and management of symptoms such as dyspnea, sleep disturbance, and many others is also an essential part of oncology nursing. Objective scientific research in this sphere is needed in order to achieve results, and studies in the fields of cancer chemistry and biology are continuing to develop various new methods and techniques.