Total Atonement: Trinitarian Participation in the Reconciliation of Humanity and Creation
Total Atonement re-imagines the “apprehended mystery” of the atonement in light of the triune nature of God and the person and work of the incarnate Christ. W. Ross Hastings proposes participation as a theory or framework of atonement that holds all other models within it. He argues that God’s participation in humanity in order that humans might participate in God invites a total approach to the mystery of the atonement, that is, one that involves the whole Trinity, the whole person and history of Christ, and all the biblical motifs and theological models of atonement–– including penal substitution (properly nuanced to overcome its caricatures), Christus victor, satisfaction, vicarious life, and moral exemplar. Hastings re-examines the scope of the atonement in light of these Trinitarian, incarnational realities.
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